# Butane (C4H10): Lewis structure, Molecular Geometry, Polar or Nonpolar

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Butane (C4H10) is a nonpolar molecule. However, how can you identify whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar? It’s not a mystery; you can easily determine the polarity of any molecule.

The polarity of any molecule directly depends upon three factors, which include electronegativity, geometry, and Lewis structure.

In the blog post, I’m going to discuss the reasons for the non-polarity of butane. So, let us know the chemistry behind the non-polar nature of butane.

## 1st Step

### Draw the Lewis Structure of Butane (C4H10)

In the first step, draw the Lewis structure of C4H10 to elucidate the skeleton of the molecule. In symmetrical molecules, dipole moments would cancel out each other. However, molecules with no lone pairs are symmetrical and the dipole moments cancel out each other, so they are non-polar.

Now the above structure completely describes that C4H10 has ten C-H and three C-C bonds. All bonds are arranged in such a manner that they form a symmetrical structure. All the bonds are in symmetry, so the dipole moment would be zero here. However, you can say that

Butane (C4H10) is a non-polar molecule.

## 2nd Step

### Check the Polarity of Butane (C4H10)

A molecule contains a chemical bond that can be non-polar, polar, or ionic. It all depends upon the electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms in a molecule. Let’s now have a brief look at the relationship between electronegativity and the polarity of molecules.

Electronegativity describes how strongly an atom attracts electrons in a chemical bond. The electronegativity difference between two atoms determines the chemical bond.

• If the electronegativity difference is greater than 2.1, the bond will be ionic.
• When the electronegativity difference is 0.5 to 2.1, the bond will be polar covalent.
• If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is less than 0.5, the bond will be non-polar.

Now let’s move toward the butane C4H10, which contains ten C-H bonds and three C-C bonds. From the periodic table, you can see the electronegativity values of carbon and hydrogen. From the electronegativity values, you can predict whether C4H10 is polar or non-polar.

As it is confirmed from the periodic table that

The electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.2.

Electronegativity of carbon = 2.55

Now let’s calculate the polarity of C-C and C-H bonds separately.

### The Polarity of the C-H Bond

Electronegativity difference = 2.55 – 2.2 = 0.35

The electronegativity difference between C and H is less than 0.5, which shows its non-polar behavior.

Therefore, the C-H bond will be non-polar.

### The Polarity of the C-C Bond

Electronegativity difference = 2.55–2.55 = 0.

The electronegativity difference between C and C is less than 0.5, which indicates its non-polar behavior.

Therefore, the C-C bond will be non-polar.

However, the above calculation proves that the electronegativity value is less than 0.5 and there are no partial charges on the C-C or C-H bonds.

Hence, butane (C4H10) will be non-polar.

## 3rd step

### Determine the Geometry of Butane (C4H10)

Non-polar molecules have symmetrical shapes, and polar molecules are asymmetrical.

View the C4H10 3D structure for more insights. You can observe that butane (C4H10) has a symmetrical structure.

Hydrogen atoms that are evenly spaced at equal angles surround carbon atoms.

There are no partial positive and negative charges overall on the Butane (C4H10) molecule because all of the bonds in C4H10 are nonpolar and the structure is symmetrical.

In other words, dissect the symmetric molecules. If the same atoms are attached to the central atom, the molecule will be non-polar.

Hence, 3D geometry proves that C4H10 is a non-polar molecule.

## Conclusion

• Butane is a non-polar molecule with ten C-H and three C-C bonds.
• It’s a symmetrical molecule, which predicts its non-polar nature.
• In addition, the electronegativity difference between bounded atoms is less than 0.5, which shows butane is a non-polar molecule.

## FAQs

### Which type of bond isC4H10?

Butane (C4H10) is a non-polar covalent molecule. All ten C-H and three C-C bonds are covalent with no partial negative or positive charge. There is a less electronegativity difference between C-H and no electronegativity difference between C-C. This fact makes butane a non-polar molecule. However, butane has a nonpolar covalent bond.

### How do you know if a molecule is polar or non-polar?

The polarity of any molecule depends upon its electronegativity; geometry etc. if the electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms of any molecule is less than 0.5, then it will be non-polar. However, if the electronegativity difference is 0.5 to 2.1, the molecule will be polar.
In addition, symmetrical molecules are mostly non-polar while asymmetrical molecules are polar

### What is C4H10 in chemistry?

In chemistry, C4H10 is the derivative of an alkane with the general formula CnH2n+2. Derivatives of alkane mean it contains a single C-C bond at all. It also contains different isomers (molecules with the same molecular formula but differing in the arrangement of atoms), which include n-butane and iso-butane. Butane is used as a food propellant, as fuel, in the formation of other chemicals, and in cigarette lighters.

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